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#1
Doctor

Doctor

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А кто знает сколько цилиндров в двигателе современного болида формала 1?

Какой размер колес?

Какое октановое число топлива? Это бензин, керосин, газолин или что?

#2
Vad El'

Vad El'

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Атмосферный двигатель V8 объёмом 2.4 литра.
Редлайн оборотов в среднем около 19000 оборотов.
Потребляет в таком режиме около 650 литров воздуха в секунду.
Потребляет по ходу гонки в среднем около 75 литров гоночного топлива на 100 км.
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ARTICLE 5: ENGINE
5.1 Engine specification:
5.1.1 Only 4-stroke engines with reciprocating pistons are permitted.
5.1.2 Subject only to Article 5.2, engine capacity must not exceed 2400 cc.
5.1.3 Supercharging is forbidden.
5.1.4 All engines must have 8 cylinders arranged in a 90º “V” configuration and the normal section of each cylinder must be circular.
5.1.5 Engines must have two inlet and two exhaust valves per cylinder.
Only reciprocating poppet valves are permitted.
The sealing interface between the moving valve component and the stationary engine component must be circular.
5.2 Alternative engines:
For 2006 and 2007 only, the FIA reserves the right to allow any team to use an engine complying with the 2005 engine regulations, provided its maximum crankshaft rotational speed does not exceed a limit fixed from time to time by the FIA so as to ensure that such an engine will only be used by a team which does not have access to a competitive 2.4 litre V8 engine.
5.3 Other means of propulsion:
5.3.1 Subject only to Article 5.2, the use of any device, other than the 2.4 litre, four stroke engine described in 5.1 above, to power the car, is not permitted.
5.3.2 The total amount of recoverable energy stored on the car must not exceed 300kJ, any which may be recovered at a rate greater than 2kW must not exceed 20kJ.
5.4 Engine dimensions:
5.4.1 Cylinder bore diameter may not exceed 98mm.
5.4.2 Cylinder spacing must be fixed at 106.5mm (+/- 0.2mm).
5.4.3 The crankshaft centreline must not be less than 58mm above the reference plane.
5.5 Weight and centre of gravity:
5.5.1 The overall weight of the engine must be a minimum of 95kg.
5.5.2 The centre of gravity of the engine may not lie less than 165mm above the reference plane.
5.5.3 The longitudinal and lateral position of the centre of gravity of the engine must fall within a region that is the geometric centre of the engine, +/- 50mm.
5.5.4 When establishing conformity with Article 5.5, the engine will include the intake system up to and including the air filter, fuel rail and injectors, ignition coils, engine mounted sensors and wiring, alternator, coolant pumps and oil pumps.
5.5.5 When establishing conformity with Article 5.5, the engine will not include liquids, exhaust manifolds, heat shields, oil tanks, water system accumulators, heat exchangers, hydraulic system (e.g. pumps, accumulators, manifolds, servo-valves, solenoids, actuators) except servo-valve and actuator for engine throttle control, fuel pumps nor any component not mounted on the engine when fitted to the car.
5.6 Variable geometry systems:
5.6.1 Variable geometry inlet systems are not permitted.
5.6.2 Variable geometry exhaust systems are not permitted.
5.6.3 Variable valve timing and variable valve lift systems are not permitted.
5.7 Fuel systems
5.7.1 The pressure of the fuel supplied to the injectors may not exceed 100 bar. Sensors must be fitted which directly measure the pressure of the fuel supplied to the injectors, these signals must be supplied to the FIA data logger.
5.7.2 Only one fuel injector per cylinder is permitted which must inject directly into the side or the top of the inlet port.
5.8 Electrical systems:
5.8.1 Ignition is only permitted by means of a single ignition coil and single spark plug per cylinder. The use of plasma, laser or other high frequency ignition techniques is forbidden.
5.8.2 Only conventional spark plugs that function by high tension electrical discharge across an exposed gap are permitted.
Spark plugs are not subject to the materials restrictions described in Articles 5.13 and 5.14.
5.8.3 The primary regulated voltage on the car must not exceed 17.0V DC. This voltage is defined as the stabilised output from the on-car charging system.
5.9 Engine actuators:
With the following exceptions hydraulic, pneumatic or electronic actuation is forbidden:
a) Electronic solenoids uniquely for the control of engine fluids;
b) Components providing controlled pressure air for a pneumatic valve system;
c) A single actuator to operate the throttle system of the engine.
5.10 Engine auxiliaries:
With the exception of electrical fuel pumps engine auxiliaries must be mechanically driven directly from the engine with a fixed speed ratio to the crankshaft.
5.11 Engine intake air:
5.11.1 Other than injection of fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, any device, system, procedure, construction or design the purpose or effect of which is any decrease in the temperature of the engine intake air is forbidden.
5.11.2 Other than engine sump breather gases and fuel for the normal purpose of combustion in the engine, the spraying of any substance into the engine intake air is forbidden.
5.12 Materials and Construction - Definitions:
5.12.1 X Based Alloy (e.g. Ni based alloy) – X must be the most abundant element in the alloy on a %w/w basis. The minimum possible weight percent of the element X must always be greater than the maximum possible of each of the other individual elements present in the alloy.
5.12.2 X-Y Based Alloy (e.g. Al-Cu based alloy) – X must be the most abundant element as in 5.12.1 above. In addition element Y must be the second highest constituent (%w/w), after X in the alloy. The mean content of Y and all other alloying elements must be used to determine the second highest alloying element (Y).
5.12.3 Intermetallic Materials (e.g. TiAl, NiAl, FeAl, Cu3Au, NiCo) – These are materials where the material is based upon intermetallic phases, i.e. the matrix of the material consists of greater then 50%v/v intermetallic phase(s). An intermetallic phase is a solid solution between two or more metals exhibiting either partly ionic or covalent, or metallic bonding with a long range order, in a narrow range of composition around the stoichiometric proportion.
5.12.4 Composite Materials – These are materials where a matrix material is reinforced by either a continuous or discontinuous phase. The matrix can be metallic, ceramic, polymeric or glass based. The reinforcement can be present as long fibres (continuous reinforcement); or short fibres, whiskers and particles (discontinuous reinforcement).
5.12.5 Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's) – These are materials with a metallic matrix containing a phase of greater than 2%v/v which is not soluble in the liquid phase of the metallic matrix.
5.12.6 Ceramic Materials (e.g. Al2O3, SiC, B4C, Ti5Si3, SiO2, Si3N4) – These are inorganic, non metallic solids.
5.13 Materials and construction – General:
5.13.1 Unless explicitly permitted for a specific engine component, the following materials may not be used anywhere on the engine:
a) Magnesium based alloys
b) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC's)
c) Intermetallic materials
d) Alloys containing more than 5% by weight of Beryllium, Iridium or Rhenium.
5.13.2 Coatings are free provided the total coating thickness does not exceed 25% of the section thickness of the underlying base material in all axes. In all cases the relevant coating must not exceed 0.8mm.
5.14 Materials and construction – Components:
5.14.1 Pistons must be manufactured from an aluminium alloy which is either Al-Si; Al-Cu; Al-Mg or Al-Zn based.
5.14.2 Piston pins must be manufactured from an iron based alloy and must be machined from a single piece of material.
5.14.3 Connecting rods must be manufactured from iron or titanium based alloys and must be machined from a single piece of material with no welded or joined assemblies (other than a bolted big end cap or an interfered small end bush).
5.14.4 Crankshafts must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
No welding is permitted between the front and rear main bearing journals.
No material with a density exceeding 19,000kg/m3 may be assembled to the crankshaft.
5.14.5 Camshafts must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
Each camshaft and lobes must be machined from a single piece of material.
No welding is allowed between the front and rear bearing journals.
5.14.6 Valves must be manufactured from alloys based on Iron, Nickel, Cobalt or Titanium.
Hollow structures cooled by sodium, lithium or similar are permitted.
5.14.7 Reciprocating and rotating components:
a) Reciprocating and rotating components must not be manufactured from graphitic matrix, metal matrix composites or ceramic materials. This restriction does not apply to the clutch and any seals;
b) Rolling elements of rolling element bearings must be manufactured from an iron based alloy;
c) Timing gears between the crankshaft and camshafts (including hubs) must be manufactured from an iron based alloy.
5.14.8 Static components:
a) Engine crankcases and cylinder heads must be manufactured from cast or wrought aluminium alloys.
No composite materials or metal matrix composites are permitted either for the whole component or locally.
b) Any metallic structure whose primary or secondary function is to retain lubricant or coolant within the engine must be manufactured from an iron based alloy or an aluminium alloy of the Al-Si, Al-Cu, Al-Zn or Al-Mg alloying systems.
c) All threaded fasteners must be manufactured from an alloy based on Cobalt, Iron or Nickel.
Composite materials are not permitted.
d) Valve seat inserts, valve guides and any other bearing component may be manufactured from metallic infiltrated pre-forms with other phases which are not used for reinforcement.
5.15 Starting the engine:
A supplementary device temporarily connected to the car may be used to start the engine both on the grid and in the pits.
5.16 Stall prevention systems:
If a car is equipped with a stall prevention system, and in order to avoid the possibility of a car involved in an accident being left with the engine running, all such systems must be configured to stop the engine no more than ten seconds after activation.
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Топливо представляет собой довольно сложную смесь на основе высокооктанового бензина (октановое число в итоге реально зависит от настроек и нужд конструкторов), спирта и авиационного керосина. Плюс глубоко законспирированный пакет химических присадок. Точной формулы не существет, команды используют до 50 разных версий топливной смеси.
Вот цитата из правил (переводить лениво):
----------------------------------------------------
ARTICLE 19: FUEL
19.1 Purpose of Article 19:
19.1.1 The purpose of this Article is to ensure that the fuel used in Formula One is petrol as this term is generally understood.
19.1.2 The detailed requirements of this Article are intended to ensure the use of fuels which are predominantly composed of compounds normally found in commercial fuels and to prohibit the use of specific power-boosting chemical compounds. Acceptable compounds and compound classes are defined in 19.2 and 19.4.4. In addition, to cover the presence of low level impurities, the sum of components lying outside the 19.2 and 19.4.4 definitions are limited to 1% max m/m of the total fuel.
19.1.3 Any petrol which appears to have been formulated in order to subvert the purpose of this regulation will be deemed to be outside it.
19.2 Definitions:
Paraffins - straight chain and branched alkanes.
Olefins - straight chain and branched mono-olefins and di-olefins. Monocyclic mono-olefins (with five or more carbon atoms in the ring) with or without paraffinic side chains.
Di-olefins - straight chain or branched or monocyclic or bicyclic or tricyclic hydrocarbons (with five or more carbon atoms in any ring) with or without paraffinic side chains, containing two double bonds per molecule.
Naphthenes - monocyclic alkanes (with five or more carbon atoms in the ring) with or without paraffinic side chains.

Aromatics - monocyclic and bicyclic aromatic rings with or without paraffinic or olefinic side chains and/or fused naphthenic rings. Only one double bond may be present outside the aromatic ring. Fused naphthenic rings must meet the naphthene definition above.
Oxygenates - specified organic compounds containing oxygen.

19.3 Properties: The only fuel permitted is petrol having the following characteristics: Property Units Min Max Test Method
RON 95.0 102.0 ASTM D 2699-86
MON 85.0 ASTM D 2700-86
Oxygen %m/m 2.7 Elemental Analysis
Nitrogen mg/kg 500 ASTM D 4629
Benzene %v/v 1.0 EN 238
RVP hPa 450 600 ASTM D 323
Lead g/l 0.005 ASTM D 3237
Density at 15°C kg/m³ 720.0 775.0 ASTM D 4052
Oxidation stability minutes 360 ASTM D 525
Existent gum mg/100ml 5.0 EN 26246
Sulphur mg/kg 10 ASTM D 5453
Copper corrosion rating C1 ISO 2160
Electrical Conductivity pS/m 200 ASTM D 2624



Distillation characteristics: At E70°C %v/v 20.0 48.0 ISO 3405
At E100°C %v/v 46.0 71.0 ISO 3405
At E150°C %v/v 75.0 ISO 3405
Final Boiling Point °C 210 ISO 3405
Residue %v/v 2.0 ISO 3405

The fuel will be accepted or rejected according to ASTM D 3244 with a confidence limit of 95%
19.4 Composition of the fuel:
19.4.1 The composition of the petrol must comply with the detailed below: Units Min Max Test Method
Aromatics %v/v 35* ASTM D 1319
Olefins %v/v 18* ASTM D 1319
Total di-olefins %m/m 1 GCMS
Total styrene and alkyl derivatives %m/m 1 GCMS

*Values when corrected for fuel oxygenate content.
In addition, the fuel must contain no substance which is capable of exothermic reaction in the absence of external oxygen.
19.4.2 The total of individual hydrocarbon components present at concentrations of less than 5%m/m must be at least 30% m/m of the fuel.
19.4.3 The total concentration of each hydrocarbon group in the total fuel sample (defined by carbon number and hydrocarbon type), must not exceed the limits given in the table below: % m/m C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9+ Non PONA* Unassigned
Paraffins 10 30 25 25 55 20 -
Naphtenes - 5 10 10 10 10 -
Olefins 5 20 20 15 10 10 -
Aromatics - - 1.2 35 35 30 -
Maximum 15 40 45 50 60 45 1 5

* Non PONA are components not meeting definitions in 19.2 and 19.4.4
For the purposes of this table, a gas chromatographic technique must be employed which can classify hydrocarbons in the total fuel sample such that all those identified are allocated to the appropriate cell of the table. Compounds present at concentrations below 0.1% by mass may be deemed unassigned, except that it is the responsibility of the fuel approval laboratory to ensure that components representing at least 95% by mass of the total fuel are assigned. The sum of the non PONA and unassigned hydrocarbons must not exceed 5.0% by mass of the total fuel sample.
19.4.4 The only oxygenates permitted are:
Methanol (MeOH)
Ethanol (EtOH)
Iso-propyl alcohol (IPA)
Iso-butyl alcohol (IBA)
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE)
Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE)
Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether (TAME)
Di-Isopropyl Ether (DIPE)
n-Propyl alcohol (NPA)
Tertiary Butyl Alcohol (TBA)
n-Butyl Alcohol (NBA)
Secondary Butyl Alcohol (SBA)
19.4.5 Manganese based additives are not permitted
19.5 Air:
Only ambient air may be mixed with the fuel as an oxidant.
19.6 Safety:
19.6.1 All competitors must be in possession of a Material Safety Data Sheet for each type of petrol used. This sheet must be made out in accordance with EC Directive 93/112/EEC and all information contained therein strictly adhered to.
19.7 Fuel approval:
19.7.1 Before any fuel may be used in an Event, two separate five litre samples, in suitable containers, must be submitted to the FIA for analysis and approval. 19.7.2 No fuel may be used in an Event without prior written approval of the FIA.
19.8 Sampling and testing at an Event:
19.8.1 All samples will be taken in accordance with FIA Formula One fuel sampling procedure, a copy of which may be found in the Appendix to these regulations.
19.8.2 Fuel samples taken during an Event will be checked for conformity by using a gas chromatographic technique which will compare the sample taken with an approved fuel. Samples, which differ from the approved fuel in a manner consistent with evaporative loss, will be considered to conform. However, the FIA retains the right to subject the fuel sample to further testing at an FIA approved laboratory.
19.8.3 GC peak areas of the sample will be compared with those obtained from the reference fuel. Increases in any given peak area (relative to its adjacent peak areas) which are greater than 12%, or an absolute amount greater than 0.1% for compounds present at concentrations below 0.8%, will be deemed not to comply.
If a peak is detected in a fuel sample that was absent in the corresponding reference fuel, and its peak area represents more than 0.10% of the summed peak areas of the fuel, the fuel will be deemed not to comply
----------------------------------------------------

Колеса, тут всё просто и даёт свободу действий.
Переводить особого смысла нет, и так всё понятно.
----------------------------------------------------
ARTICLE 12: WHEELS AND TYRES
12.1 Location:
Wheels must be external to the bodywork in plan view, with the rear aerodynamic device removed.
12.2 Number of wheels:
The number of wheels is fixed at four.
12.3 Wheel material:
All wheels must be made from an homogeneous metallic material.
12.4 Wheel dimensions:
12.4.1 Complete wheel width must lie between 305 and 355mm when fitted to the front of the car and between 365 and 380mm when fitted to the rear.
12.4.2 Complete wheel diameter must not exceed 660mm when fitted with dry-weather tyres or 670mm when fitted with wet-weather tyres.
12.4.3 Complete wheel width and diameter will be measured horizontally at axle height, with the wheel held in a vertical position and when fitted with new tyres inflated to 1.4 bar.
12.4.4 Wheel bead diameter must lie between 328 and 332mm
----------------------------------------------------

#3
Doctor

Doctor

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огромное спасибо :)





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